Fernando Gonzalez, MD

Prof of Clinical Pediatrics
+1 415 514-0236

My research is focused on determining how the full-term brain responds to acute injury during the neonatal period, and strategies to enhance neuroplasticity and long-term functional outcomes. My specific research goals are to: (1) clearly define the neuronal subpopulations that are vulnerable to ischemia and critical for neurodevelopment, (2) determine the mechanisms of injury and endogenous repair in the immature brain, and (3) define therapeutic strategies to enhance long-term function. Specifically, I am interested in how the immature brain differs from the adult brain in its response to stroke, and how reparative mechanisms can be enhanced with delayed therapy. Throughout my training, I have had broad exposure to various aspects of central nervous system (CNS) development and repair, including: evaluation and inhibition of pain through direct CNS treatment; the effects of local injury on wound healing and phagocytosis; direct evaluation of behavioral, cognitive, and nociceptive function after injury; pathophysiologic mechanisms of early brain injury; and the effects of exogenous therapy on early brain injury. Of these experiences, the ones I found most compelling were those that linked rigorous basic science at the bench to investigation of human disease. For example, my research on the short-term effects of exogenous erythropoietin treatment on neurogenesis after early rodent stroke prompted a study to determine beneficial treatment strategies that improve long-term functional outcomes. This project showed that prolonged erythropoietin treatment is most effective for long-term behavioral improvement, a finding that informed clinical studies in humans to treat neonatal brain injury. My current research is focused on cell type-specific changes in the peri-infarct cortex, including alterations in cell fate, function, and circuit formation. This will have a significant impact in improving knowledge and identifying novel therapies to treat early injury. It is my clear desire to apply this type of translational approach to the field of neonatal brain injury, thereby unifying my interest in neuroscience and brain development with a goal of improving the care of the newborn.


Genetic and Congenital Anomalies in Infants With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

Pediatric neurology

Morell AS, Monsell SE, Cornet MC, Wisnowski JL, McKinstry RC, Mathur AM, Li Y, Glass HC, Gonzalez FF, Mayock DE, Benninger KL, Van Meurs KP, Lampland AL, Wu TW, Riley D, Mietzsch U, Chalak L, Flibotte J, Weitkamp JH, Ahmad KA, Yanowitz TD, Baserga M, Merhar S, Rao R, Sokol GM, Comstock BA, Heagerty PJ, Juul SE, Wu YW

Association of EEG Background and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Neonates With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Receiving Hypothermia.


Glass HC, Numis AL, Comstock BA, Gonzalez FF, Mietzsch U, Bonifacio SL, Massey S, Thomas C, Natarajan N, Mayock DE, Sokol GM, Van Meurs KP, Ahmad KA, Maitre N, Heagerty PJ, Juul SE, Wu YW, Wusthoff CJ

Evolution of the Sarnat exam and association with 2-year outcomes in infants with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy: a secondary analysis of the HEAL Trial.

Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition

Mietzsch U, Kolnik SE, Wood TR, Natarajan N, Gonzalez FF, Glass H, Mayock DE, Bonifacio SL, Van Meurs K, Comstock BA, Heagerty PJ, Wu TW, Wu YW, Juul SE, HEAL Trial Study Group

Time to Reaching Target Cooling Temperature and Two-Year Outcomes in Infants with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

The Journal of pediatrics

Rao R, Comstock BA, Wu TW, Mietzsch U, Mayock DE, Gonzalez FF, Wood TR, Heagerty PJ, Juul SE, Wu YW

Early Glycemic State and Outcomes of Neonates With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.


Mietzsch U, Wood TR, Wu TW, Natarajan N, Glass HC, Gonzalez FF, Mayock DE, Comstock BA, Heagerty PJ, Juul SE, Wu YW, HEAL Study Group

Placental Histologic Abnormalities and 2-Year Outcomes in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.


Gonzalez FF, Voldal E, Comstock BA, Mayock DE, Goodman AM, Cornet MC, Wu TW, Redline RW, Heagerty P, Juul SE, Wu YW

Safety of High Dose Erythropoietin Used with Therapeutic Hypothermia as Treatment for Newborn Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: Secondary Analysis of the HEAL Randomized Controlled Trial.

The Journal of pediatrics

Juul SE, Comstock BA, Cornet MC, Gonzalez FF, Mayock DE, Glass HC, Schreiber MD, Heagerty PJ, Wu YW

How well does neonatal neuroimaging correlate with neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy?

Pediatric research

Wu YW, Monsell SE, Glass HC, Wisnowski JL, Mathur AM, McKinstry RC, Bluml S, Gonzalez FF, Comstock BA, Heagerty PJ, Juul SE

Risk of seizures in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy receiving hypothermia plus erythropoietin or placebo.

Pediatric research

Glass HC, Wusthoff CJ, Comstock BA, Numis AL, Gonzalez FF, Maitre N, Massey SL, Mayock DE, Mietzsch U, Natarajan N, Sokol GM, Bonifacio SL, Van Meurs KP, Thomas C, Ahmad KA, Heagerty PJ, Juul SE, Wu YW

Trial of Erythropoietin for Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns.

The New England journal of medicine

Wu YW, Comstock BA, Gonzalez FF, Mayock DE, Goodman AM, Maitre NL, Chang T, Van Meurs KP, Lampland AL, Bendel-Stenzel E, Mathur AM, Wu TW, Riley D, Mietzsch U, Chalak L, Flibotte J, Weitkamp JH, Ahmad KA, Yanowitz TD, Baserga M, Poindexter BB, Rogers EE, Lowe JR, Kuban KCK, O'Shea TM, Wisnowski JL, McKinstry RC, Bluml S, Bonifacio S, Benninger KL, Rao R, Smyser CD, Sokol GM, Merhar S, Schreiber MD, Glass HC, Heagerty PJ, Juul SE, HEAL Consortium

Interleukin-15 modulates the response of cortical neurons to ischemia.

Molecular and cellular neurosciences

Nguyen V, Ameri K, Huynh K, Fredkin M, Grona R, Larpthaveesarp A, Gonzalez F, Yeghiazarians Y

Physician-Scientist Training & Programming in Pediatric Residency Programs: A National Survey.

The Journal of pediatrics

Burns AM, Moore DJ, Forster CS, Powell W, Thammasitboon S, Hostetter MK, Weiss P, Boyer D, Ward MA, Blankenburg R, Heyman MB, Rassbach CE, McPhillips H, French A, Nguyen S, Byrne BJ, Parsons DW, Gonzalez F, Nowalk AJ, Ho J, Kumar S, Orange JS, Ackerman KG

Update on mechanisms of the pathophysiology of neonatal encephalopathy.

Seminars in fetal & neonatal medicine

Davidson JO, Gonzalez F, Gressens P, Gunn AJ, Newborn Brain Society Guidelines and Publications Committee

Acute and Chronic Placental Abnormalities in a Multicenter Cohort of Newborn Infants With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

The Journal of pediatrics

Chalak L, Redline RW, Goodman AM, Juul SE, Chang T, Yanowitz TD, Maitre N, Mayock DE, Lampland AL, Bendel-Stenzel E, Riley D, Mathur AM, Rao R, Van Meurs KP, Wu TW, Gonzalez FF, Flibotte J, Mietzsch U, Sokol GM, Ahmad KA, Baserga M, Weitkamp JH, Poindexter BB, Comstock BA, Wu YW

Neuroprotective effects of Sonic hedgehog agonist SAG in a rat model of neonatal stroke.

Pediatric research

Nguyen V, Chavali M, Larpthaveesarp A, Kodali S, Gonzalez G, Franklin RJM, Rowitch DH, Gonzalez F

Perspectives from the Society for Pediatric Research: advice on sustaining science and mentoring during COVID-19.

Pediatric research

Forster CS, Nguyen ST, Powell WT, Moore DJ, Ho J, Heyman MB, Wenger TL, Gonzalez F, Hostetter M, Nowalk A, Rassbach CE, Boyer D, Weiss P, Blankenburg RL, Orange JS, Ackerman KG, Burns AM, National Pediatric Physician-Scientist Collaborative Workgroup

Enhanced Mesenchymal Stromal Cells or Erythropoietin Provide Long-Term Functional Benefit After Neonatal Stroke.


Larpthaveesarp A, Pathipati P, Ostrin S, Rajah A, Ferriero D, Gonzalez FF

A new genetic strategy for targeting microglia in development and disease.


McKinsey GL, Lizama CO, Keown-Lang AE, Niu A, Santander N, Larpthaveesarp A, Chee E, Gonzalez FF, Arnold TD

Neuroprotection Strategies for Term Encephalopathy.

Seminars in pediatric neurology

Gonzalez FF

Placental pathology and neonatal brain MRI in a randomized trial of erythropoietin for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

Pediatric research

Wu YW, Goodman AM, Chang T, Mulkey SB, Gonzalez FF, Mayock DE, Juul SE, Mathur AM, Van Meurs K, McKinstry RC, Redline RW

Recommendations for the design of therapeutic trials for neonatal seizures.

Pediatric research

Soul JS, Pressler R, Allen M, Boylan G, Rabe H, Portman R, Hardy P, Zohar S, Romero K, Tseng B, Bhatt-Mehta V, Hahn C, Denne S, Auvin S, Vinks A, Lantos J, Marlow N, Davis JM

Predictive value of early EEG for seizures in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.

Pediatric research

Cornet MC, Pasupuleti A, Fang A, Gonzalez F, Shimotake T, Ferriero DM, Glass HC, Cilio MR

High-Dose Erythropoietin for Asphyxia and Encephalopathy (HEAL): A Randomized Controlled Trial - Background, Aims, and Study Protocol.


Juul SE, Comstock BA, Heagerty PJ, Mayock DE, Goodman AM, Hauge S, Gonzalez F, Wu YW

Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model of Neonatal Stroke in P10 Rats.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

Larpthaveesarp A, Gonzalez FF

High-Dose Erythropoietin and Hypothermia for Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Phase II Trial.


Wu YW, Mathur AM, Chang T, McKinstry RC, Mulkey SB, Mayock DE, Van Meurs KP, Rogers EE, Gonzalez FF, Comstock BA, Juul SE, Msall ME, Bonifacio SL, Glass HC, Massaro AN, Dong L, Tan KW, Heagerty PJ, Ballard RA

Delayed erythropoietin therapy improves histological and behavioral outcomes after transient neonatal stroke.

Neurobiology of disease

Larpthaveesarp A, Georgevits M, Ferriero DM, Gonzalez FF

Growth factors for the treatment of ischemic brain injury (growth factor treatment).

Brain sciences

Larpthaveesarp A, Ferriero DM, Gonzalez FF

Erythropoietin: a novel therapy for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy?

Developmental medicine and child neurology

Wu YW, Gonzalez FF

Stem cells for neonatal stroke- the future is here.

Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

van Velthoven CT, Gonzalez F, Vexler ZS, Ferriero DM

Erythropoietin increases neurogenesis and oligodendrogliosis of subventricular zone precursor cells after neonatal stroke.


Gonzalez FF, Larpthaveesarp A, McQuillen P, Derugin N, Wendland M, Spadafora R, Ferriero DM

An overview of risk factors for poor neurodevelopmental outcome associated with prematurity.

World journal of pediatrics : WJP

Xiong T, Gonzalez F, Mu DZ

Erythropoietin for neuroprotection in neonatal encephalopathy: safety and pharmacokinetics.


Wu YW, Bauer LA, Ballard RA, Ferriero DM, Glidden DV, Mayock DE, Chang T, Durand DJ, Song D, Bonifacio SL, Gonzalez FF, Glass HC, Juul SE

Is erythropoietin the answer?

Pediatric research

Gonzalez FF, Fang A, Ferriero DM

Neonatal community-acquired pneumonia: pathogens and treatment.

Journal of paediatrics and child health

Wang H, Tang J, Xiong Y, Li X, Gonzalez F, Mu D

Altered fate of subventricular zone progenitor cells and reduced neurogenesis following neonatal stroke.

Developmental neuroscience

Spadafora R, Gonzalez FF, Derugin N, Wendland M, Ferriero D, McQuillen P

Neuroprotection in the newborn infant.

Clinics in perinatology

Gonzalez FF, Ferriero DM

Erythropoietin sustains cognitive function and brain volume after neonatal stroke.

Developmental neuroscience

Gonzalez FF, Abel R, Almli CR, Mu D, Wendland M, Ferriero DM

Therapeutics for neonatal brain injury.

Pharmacology & therapeutics

Gonzalez FF, Ferriero DM

Erythropoietin enhances long-term neuroprotection and neurogenesis in neonatal stroke.

Developmental neuroscience

Gonzalez FF, McQuillen P, Mu D, Chang Y, Wendland M, Vexler Z, Ferriero DM

Does perinatal asphyxia impair cognitive function without cerebral palsy?

Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition

Gonzalez FF, Miller SP